We have learned that microbes can be beneficial to us when they are part of a healthy gastrointestinal microbiome or when they help make cheese. We also know that they can cause disease in a variety of ways. But what about less known roles that microbes play when they do our dirty work for us or act as our custom made factories? Humans use microbes to do many different jobs – some jobs can be carried out thanks to natural abilities, while other jobs require genetic engineering of microbes so that they can serve a particular purpose. Either way, as technology progresses and humans face more challenges, we get more creative with what we can get our little friends to do for us.
One example of using microorganisms to (quite literally) clean up our mess is bioremediation, in which microbes clear pollution in the environment for us (Fig. 1). In cases of oil spills, we introduce bacterial and fungal species known to be naturally oleophilic, which means that they love oil and will take up certain hydrocarbons to use as food. Researchers have isolated bacterial species that have shown great promise and are already being used for this purpose, such as Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Brevibacillus and Staphylococcus species . This area of research has still not reached its full potential and there is still much work that needs to be done before microbes can be used to properly clean up petroleum spills and save ecosystems from such catastrophes.
Fig. 1 Oil spills destroy entire ecosystems – what if microbes could save the day? Source
In addition to saving the environment, microbes are also used as little factories to synthesize molecules that humans require, such as vitamins. For example, vitamin B12 is required in humans for proper cellular function, yet we cannot produce it ourselves; we have to acquire it through our diet. Deficiency in this vitamin may result in devastating disorders, which is why many people supplement their diet with B12 tablets. But where do these tablets come from? Well, chemically synthesizing B12 from scratch requires over 70 steps and is not cost efficient, which rules it out for commercial manufacturing. However, it turns out that the most common alternative is taking advantage of microbial abilities by filling bioreactors with these bacterial cells (Fig. 2), where they can produce B12 that is then harvested and used to make B12 tablets. The top choices for this practice include Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium, which naturally produce high levels of this vitamin .
Fig. 2 An example of a commercial bioreactor (Source: Wikipedia)
Taking advantage of existing microbial abilities may sound like a no-brainer, but technology also allows us to engineer microbes so that they have added functions to help us in new and exciting ways. The ability to take human genes needed for production of insulin and express them in the bacterium Escherichia coli was a huge medical breakthrough in the late 1970’s. This was great news to patients suffering from diabetes, whose pancreases could not produce insulin, a hormone that is critical in maintaining proper blood sugar levels, and the absence of which may wreak havoc on the body (Fig. 3). Nowadays both E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are used to produce insulin to treat diabetes . If the name Saccharomyces cerevisiae *sounds familiar, it might be because you’ve heard it in the context of “brewer’s yeast” or “baker’s yeast”. Both the bacterium *E. coli and this yeast have been studied by researchers for so long and so thoroughly that we now know them well enough to engineer these species so that they can act as our custom made manufacturing units.
Fig. 3 Diabetics needs insulin to regulate their blood sugar levels Source
Ecological disasters and human disease are only two of many different problems for which scientists are exploring creative microbial solutions. One major problem that we face today is with animal agriculture. Scientists are concerned by the impact that factory farms are having on greenhouse gas emissions, habitat destruction, water usage, and pollution . In addition, moral issues regarding animal welfare arise from common husbandry practices. One approach for handling this conundrum is… you guessed it - get microbes to do it for us! Startup companies are working on expressing milk producing genes in baker’s yeast. Obviously we will not be milking little yeast cells – instead, imagine massive bioreactors full of yeast cells simply secreting a liquid that is identical to cow’s milk on the molecular level, but does not require the resources or the questionable practices associated with raising livestock. If you’d like to learn more about this exciting project, check out the video at the bottom of this news story!
How lucky are we, to live in a time when science continues to expand its limits, exploring ideas of using microbes as our little helpers? Such ideas were once thought to be crazy and are now an inseparable part of human life around the globe. As more knowledge is acquired regarding new microbial species as well as the funky abilities of familiar species, the more solutions we may find using our microscopic friends. These bugs may be tiny, but the potential they hold is pretty darn massive.
 Macaulay, Babajide Milton, and Deborah Rees. “Bioremediation of oil spills: a review of challenges for research advancement.” Annals of Environmental Science 8 (2014): 9-37.
 Hugenschmidt, S., Miescher Schwenninger, S. and Lacroix, C. (2011). Concurrent high production of natural folate and vitamin B12 using a co-culture process with Lactobacillus plantarum M39 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii DF13. Process Biochem, 46: 1063–1070. DOI:10.1016/j.procbio.2011.01.021
 Baeshen, Nabih A., Mohammed N. Baeshen, Abdullah Sheikh, Roop S. Bora, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed, Hassan AI Ramadan, Kulvinder Singh Saini, and Elrashdy M. Redwan. “Cell factories for insulin production.” Microbial cell factories 13, no. 1 (2014): 1.
 Hallström, Elinor, Annika Carlsson-Kanyama, and Pål Börjesson. “Environmental impact of dietary change: a systematic review.” Journal of Cleaner Production 91 (2015): 1-11.
More From Thats Life [Science]
- Survival by Aposematism and Mimicry: The Evolution of Bright Color Patterns
- You are a fish
- Things That Glow Pink in the Night: Why do some animals have fluorescent coloration under ultraviolet light?
- When You Call a Fish a Frog
- Who’s Got the Biggest Genome of Them All?
- The Biology of Booze ft. Tequila
- Dying Tomatoes, Healthy Kittens, and the EMP500: Why you should care about the International Society for Microbial Ecology
- The Purebred Poodle Problem
- Let It Glow
- I’m Likin’ That Lichen
- Celebrate the Holidays with a Decorative Parasite
- Sleeping One Hemisphere at a Time
- Through the Mycologist's Hand Lens: Deceptive Decomposers
- Life Science in Outer Space!
- 5 Things You Didn’t Know About Rats
- Watermelon Snow
- Critter Candid Cam
- Three Cool Plants in Hot Places
- A parasite only a moth could love
- Telling tales of plants and their names
- The Colorful World of Primate Hair
- Where do fish go in winter?
- You Scratch My Back and I’ll Scratch Yours
- Alien Microbes: How studying hyperthermophiles can help us discover life on other planets
- Life, the universe, and everything: Dreams of being a biophysicist
- Bug Sleuth – One Entomologist’s Mission to ID a Mysterious Swarm of Wasps
- Horny and Hungry: The Dilemma of Sexual Cannibalism
- Who’s who? The elusive difference between butterflies and moths
- Tuberculosis - A Romantic Disease?
- Ode to a Few Arachnids
- Monotropa uniflora - This wildflower is pretty wild
- Eavesdropping in the Animal Kingdom: Sneaky Creatures Just Trying to Get Ahead
- Trypanosomes - A Weird Pathogen You Haven't Heard Of
- A Beautiful 9/11 Tribute, but a Fiasco for Migratory Birds
- Cats can have AIDS, too.
- Part 2: Does catching Pidgeys help you notice Pigeons? Interviews with Pokémon Go Researchers
- Biodiversity in my Backyard: Encounters with Pidgeys and Dratinis, Part 1
- Fins, Limbs, Rays, and Digits – A Beginner’s Guide to Terrestrial Living
- Fins, Limbs, Rays, and Digits – A Beginner's Guide to Terrestrial Living
- Five things that really stink about the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
- Tricks but no Treats - An Orchid’s Guide to Making a Fool of Your Pollinator
- Tracking the lost years - where do baby sea turtles grow?
- Posing as a Bird Mama: the adventures of a researcher-turned-bird-parent
- Hot moves and sexy sons · When Boys Become Men By Dancing
- The hungry caterpillar in real life
- Mantis Shrimp Vision - Seeing in Secret Code
- When It Comes to Bird Beaks - Size Matters
- Is your gut trying to kill your resolve? · Mind over microbe
- Recent talk of walls in the media has brought up a lot of emotions, but what do walls do in nature? · When a Wall is just a Wall
- Bees are more than buzzing insects around you · May the Bees Be With You: Maintaining the Sweet Balance in Life
- Neither a toad nor a worm · Nematodes: The super microscopic animal!
- Snap! Flash! Bang! Find out how ocean-dwelling pistol shrimp fire bubble ‘bullets’ to stun their unsuspecting prey. · How Pistol Shrimp Kill with Bubbles
- Who needs males after all?
- Ecology and Behavior of Woodchucks · Opposition Research on My Garden’s Greatest Nemesis
- Vision in Jumping Spiders · Watching Your Every Move
- Slimed and Consumed - The Blob is Real!
- The Evolution and Ecological Impacts of Cats · Lion in Sheep's Clothing
- What happens when frogs have to compete for acoustic space and a chance to be heard? · Struggling to be Heard - Competition in a Complex Soundscape
- Think Genghis Khan and Napoleon were the most successful invaders? Think again. · Invasive Species and Invasion: Part 1
- When, and how, terror birds invade
- 8 Reasons Plants Are Amazing
- Too Clean for Comfort · How our obsession with cleanliness might be hurting our health
- Stop, evaluate, and listen - serotonin surges when a female is present
- No Teeth, Long Tongue, No Problem - Adaptations for Ant-eating
- The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly - Predators, Parasitoids, and Parasites
- How our microbiome affects our health and vice versa · If you don't care for your microbiome, you might want to start
- Finding new ways to grow bacteria to progress science · Culturing the Least Cultured Members of Society
- Hit the Road Jack
- What Happened to Your Nose?
- Building better plants - Norman Borlaug and the Green Revolution
- Love Songs for Nobody - Birdsong in Winter
- We know we get infections from time to time. Why does this happen? · The Evolution of Virulence
- How cheese rinds may be a valuable tool for microbial discovery · The Unseen World – On Cheese?
- Find Me Where the Wild Things Are
- A commentary on how to make science more ‘clickable’ · You won’t believe this simple trick to tell if your coral is healthy or not
- Some species hide in plain sight, but scientists have ways to suss them out · Cryptic Species Hide in Plain Sight
- Minuscule Hitchhikers Pinch a Ride · Creature Feature - Pseudoscorpions
- World Fish Migration Day 2016!
- Walking With Giant Anteaters
- Why we should care about sea turtles · When A Sea Turtle Balanced Earth
- More ›