Strange Bedfellows: Statistics and Biology
I’ve worked with a wide diversity of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) graduate students over the years, and I’ve noticed an alarming trend: biologists get a bad rep from physical and chemical scientists when it comes to math. Biology is sometimes depicted as a “soft” (i.e. non-quantitative) science. While this may have been true fifty years ago, it certainly hasn’t been my experience as a life scientist. Maybe this misconception stems from the fact that the roots of biology lie in naturalism [Fig 1]. Charles Darwin was, after all, hired as the HMS Beagle’s naturalist, and his intricate descriptions of the wildlife he found in South America and the Galapagos Islands led him to a theory of evolution by natural selection. Naturalism is often qualitative; that is, it relies on descriptions and observations that cannot be directly measured or easily converted into numbers. Examples of qualitative data include colors, textures, smells, and so forth. On the other hand, biology can also be quantitative. Quantitative data are numbers such as height, area, speed, time, ages, etc. Analyzing quantitative data requires statistics, a method of detecting and describing patterns of numbers.
Fig 1 Naturalists often provide detailed drawings of their subjects, such as this line drawing of an adult gold tegu, a type of South American lizard. (Source: public domain)
All of the biologists I’ve worked with appreciate the utility and necessity of statistics to our research, so in a way I’ve “grown up” during a paradigm shift. Familiarity with major statistical methods is now a key requirement for graduation from many biology programs, including my own. Better knowledge of statistics ensures better experimental design, as demonstrated by the classic paper I’ll introduce today – Stuart Hurlbert’s 1984 treatise on the idea of pseudoreplication .
But first…what is replication?
Replication is a key component of statistics and of experimental design. When you want to compare two groups (for example, people treated with a new drug and people given a sugar pill placebo), you need to compare more than just a single person that was treated and a single person that was untreated. Hurlbert calls this variation “confusion” [Fig 2]. Data cannot be perfectly measured, and even if it could, variation is often part of the natural pattern we’re trying to measure. Even if the pharmaceutical company designed and executed their drug test perfectly, a drug that works for one person may not always work for another. Everyone is unique. That’s why we need replication – so we can measure as much of this variation as possible and incorporate it into our statistical analyses.
Fig 2 Hurlbert’s sources of “confusion”, or variation around what’s expected, in any given study. Note specifically source #7. (Source: Hurlbert 1984)
Pseudoreplication – AKA How to Lie Using Statistics
“How to Lie Using Statistics” was a course at Clark University, circa 1973. My mom took that class, and still marvels that it’s actually incredibly easy to mislead people using these ‘facts’. Unfortunately, such ‘facts’ are the source of many of the current scientific controversies. Pseudoreplication is one of the ways you can lie with statistics. Basically, it means that you make inappropriate generalizations based on your study design. If you’re studying a group or a population of people, due to financial and physical limitations, you cannot possibly examine all of them. You must select a group, called the sample, that you will study. You need to have a large enough sample so that you can incorporate as much of the variation as possible. Pseudoreplication is when you choose your sample in such a way that it does not accurately reflect the entire population. Going back to the pharmaceutical company example, if that company claims that their new drug will cure a disease in the American population, but they only tested it on women, they are pseudoreplicating [Fig 3]. Hurlbert found 27% of the papers he examined had committed pseudoreplication.
Fig 3 Schematic of pseudoreplication, where, in our drug company example, the shaded boxes represent the two genders, x and y represent the different treatments (placebo vs. new drug), and the dots represent the individuals sampled. It is inappropriate to say that people respond differently to these treatments as there is no control for the effect of gender on the experiment’s outcome. (Source: Hurlbert 1984)
Calling for Statistically-Minded Biology
Training biologists in basic and complex statistical theory will inevitably reduce the rampant issue of pseudoreplication Hurlbert found in 1984, and probably already has. It’s my belief that, with statistically-minded biology, even more exciting questions about the origin and maintenance of biodiversity will be within our reach. To avoid false conclusions, it’s important for everyone to be on the lookout for pseudoreplication and similar statistical-based problems in everyday life.
 Hurlbert, S.H. (1984). Pseudoreplication and the Design of Ecological Field Experiments. Ecological Monographs 54(2):187-211.
More From Thats Life [Science]
- Interview with Dr. Matthew Moore - Viral Perspectives
- Why are Parka Ruffs Made with Wolverine Fur?
- Why Don’t We Keep Resolutions?
- Genetic Diversity and Its Impact on Disease Treatment
- How Rat Fur can Help Diabetics Heal Wounds
- Fat is Good for Your Brain
- Why Wash Your Hands?
- A Unique Case of Arthropod Vision
- How does your clock tick?
- Expand Your Mind
- Going on Autopilot? Thank Your Place Cells
- Immunohistochemistry: One man’s illness is another man’s experimental verification method
- The Power of Fear: Four Ways Being Scared Affects Wildlife
- The crime-fighting field of forensic palynology
- Bioremediation - One Species’ Trash, Another’s Treasure?
- Brain Surgery… It’s Not Rocket Science!
- Changing the climate change conversation
- Why does alcohol make you dizzy?
- It’s Not Science Fiction, Chimeras Are Real
- A Peanut A Day Keeps the Allergist Away
- The Rise of Sourdough and Mason Jar Ecosystems
- Radioactive Bananas, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, and Greenhouse Gases, OH MY!
- Uncharted Intellectual Territory: Science Isn’t Linear
- It’s a Trap! How Looks Can Be Deceiving in Habitat Selection
- The Feelings that Linger: Good vs. Bad
- Go With Your Gut...
- Live Fast, Die Young: Why Some Animals Die After Mating
- New Culture, New Microbiome, New Problems
- If Only There Were a U.S. Census Question About Biodiversity…
- How An Invasive Plant Helped Fuel The Largest Wildfire You’ve Never Heard Of
- Human Eye Structure Makes No Sense…Or Does It?
- The Price of Pigment on Your Immune System
- Midnight Snacks Could Be the Death of You
- Lobster Fight Club
- Making a Murderer - A Matter of Biology?
- Got Lactase? Breaking Down the Enzyme
- Why Do I Shiver When It’s Cold?
- Crap you didn’t really need to know
- You Can't Observe A Lot Just By Watching
- What Do You Do When It's Too Hot to Move?
- 5 Fun Facts about Hormones
- Death stinks - literally
- Why the sea salt fad could be very bad
- Henry's Pockets: A Poem
- Biology Superpowers: X-Ray Vision
- How to Expand Your Senses by Reading a Blog Post
- What's up with bat echolocation?
- Seeing is Believing - How Can We Visualize Tiny Colorless Bacteria?
- Saving water is no longer a matter of how short our showers are · Water balance in a man-made world
- Double Digestion in Rabbits · Why Does Mopsy Eat Her Own Poop?
- Should I say sex or gender? Pt. 2
- Should I say sex or gender? Pt. 1
- How To Catch Hard-to-Catch Fish?
- Finding the Perfect Partner
- Is your gut trying to kill your resolve? · Mind over microbe
- Why Do Mothers Mother?
- GMO! The Places You'll Go!
- New-Fangled Paleontology · Really Old Fossils, Really Strong Predators, and Cool New Tech
- A Brief History of Evolutionary Thought, part III
- Saving face: transplanting our most distinctive features
- A Brief History of Evolutionary Thought, part II
- DNA as a solution for data storage · DNA - Nature’s Hard Drive
- A Crash Course in the Coolness of Mitochondria · Mitochondria: The Underrated Organelles
- A Pollinator’s Job Description and Why We Should All Care About Them · Pollination 101
- You May Say I’m Biased, But I’m Not the Only One
- The evolution of one of the greatest medical discoveries in history. · The Path of Least Resistance: Our Relationship with Antibiotics
- Mother Nature’s History Book · Estimating the Age of Life Long-Gone
- Proprioception as a vital sense · Know Your Limb-its
- Man’s Best Artificially-Selected Friend · Your Dog is a GMO Wolf
- Better Safe Than Sorry: The Pesticide Industry is Getting a Revamp
- Sometimes scientists have to get creative in order to effectively do science – especially on a budget. · The Bizarre Shopping List of a Determined Scientist
- Insects Get Sick Too: The Study of Insect Pathology
- Our teeny tiny friends and their huge potential · Employee of the Month - Hire a Microbe to Do Your Work
- A Brief History of Evolutionary Thought - Part I
- The Effects of Custom Build Paradise · Artificial Islands
- To B(PA) Or To Not B(PA): Regulating Endocrine Disruptors
- Bioluminescence truly looks like it is nothing short of sorcery, and although this naturally occurring phenomenon is well studied and explained, that does not take away from its beauty. · Fireflies of the Ocean: Lighting up the Dark with Science
- Part II - Cases of altruism in the animal kingdom · Charity cases in nature - when are animals more likely to be altruistic?
- Part I - Why true altruism is a rare behavior in the animal kingdom · Being selfish means staying alive
- Penguins and other strange things we study from space
- Pseudoreplication and the Art of Biological Statistics
- What is wrong with my tomatoes?...And other plant disease questions · Why did orange prices increase?
- How fecal microbiota transplants can improve lives and possibly save them · The Wonders of Fecal Transplants
- The scientific facts behind the safety and efficacy of childhood vaccines · Calling the Shots - Discussing Vaccines
- 3D Printing for Fun and Science
- What is wrong with my tomatoes?...And other plant disease questions · What is Phytopathology?
- Medical Mysteries Still Surrounding Zika Virus
- More ›