Where do pathogens come from?
Figure 1 Electron microscopy images of common bacterial foodborne pathogens. (Left) Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli, which consists of many different strains (types) capable of various diseases, including diarrhea. (Right) Transmission electron micrograph of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in a tissue sample. L. monocytogenes causes the foodborne illness Listeriosis Photo credits: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID; CDC/ Dr. Balasubr Swaminathan, Peggy Hayes.
You have probably come across news of the potential Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination in Chipotle restaurants or the Listeria outbreaks in the Blue Bell creameries this past year. For such harmful bacteria (see Figure 1) that cause diarrhea and distress for those who get sick after eating contaminated food, these two pathogens are surprisingly common in the environment. As you can see, the question of where a pathogen originates is a “chicken or the egg” type of situation. Were the bacteria growing happily and independently in the environment, or were they excreted from an animal into the environment and were still able to survive? While we may not know the answer, we do know that most cases of foodborne illnesses start from food that has been contaminated at some stage of the food production chain (see Figure 2).
Figure 2. Foodborne pathogens are able to survive throughout numerous stages in the food production chain, from production all the way to your dinner table. Photo credit: CDC.
These bacteria thrive in many different environments, ranging from soil, water, food-processing plants, to the mammalian (that’s you) gut. To emphasize how these bacteria are great survivors, let’s explore Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), the causative agent of Listeriosis, a foodborne illness characterized by diarrhea, as well as fever and fatigue. L. monocytogenes, in particular, is able to withstand a range of temperatures including 37°C (i.e. normal human body temperature) to temperatures as low as -1.5°C, which is colder than your refrigerator! This capable microbe also exhibits acid tolerance (see Figure 3), which means it can survive in the digestive tract and colonize (establish an infection) in the intestines of humans, cattle, and fish. These feats are not inclusive of all the survival strategies L. monocytogenes possesses, but emphasize how difficult it can be to discourage the growth of *L. monocytogenes *in our foods through typical control processes such as refrigeration. As a result, this sturdy microbe can easily be transmitted from contaminated soil to crops that end up on our dinner table without extensive preventative measures of control.
Figure 3. Common strategies used by foodborne pathogens to survive and persist in the human digestive tract. Pathogens enter the body through the mouth via contaminated food and other routes of entry. From the mouth, the pathogens are able to survive acidic, or low pH, environments that are not usually hospitable for other bacteria. Once in the intestines, the bacteria thrive and cause disease. (Image by Mariana Ruiz, distributed under a CC-BY 2.0 license; modified by Stephanie Ha [text boxes]).
Who should we fear: generalists or specialists?
There are different categories for the types of pathogens that appear. Generalists are pathogens that are able to grow in many different environments, including animal hosts. These are often opportunistic, meaning they are typically happy in environmental locations such as soil, but if transmitted to a host, grow just as happily. Conversely, specialists grow in a particular environment or animal host. As you can see, the term “generalists” may better describe foodborne pathogens, as they have multiple strategies to survive in many different niches. But what about the pathogens that do not cause disease outside of humans? Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), the leading bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, is an obligate intracellular human pathogen which means it cannot grow nor replicate without entering human cells. C. trachomatis is isolated only in humans, which is very different from the generalist L. monocytogenes, and therefore, C. trachomatis is considered a “specialist.”
While it remains unclear where specialists originate, it is possible that these specialists were once generalists. For instance, all bacteria rely on the molecule adenosine triphosphate (or ATP) for energy. C. trachomatis, however, no longer produces ATP; instead, the bacterium steals ATP that is produced by our cells. C. trachomatis had undergone a phenomenon called genome reduction, in which genes not essential for survival are lost over time. In fact, the C. trachomatis genome (total DNA, or the “instructions” of the bacteria), is only about one megabase pair in size—that’s three times smaller than the average genome of E. coli—indicating that C. trachomatis has lost genes for the production of nutrients in addition to ATP, which is available in the host. In almost all cases, bacteria that do not rely on a host would not lose the genes that tell them how to make the protein that synthesizes ATP. However, C. trachomatis is an exception because it has learned to take advantage of its frequent infection of human cells and save itself the effort of making ATP by utilizing our ATP instead.  Thus, it is possible that generalists that repeatedly and successfully colonize a host may evolve into specialists by genome reduction and other phenomena.
Figure 4. Zoonotic disease occurs when pathogens are passed on from animals to humans. Photo credit: CDC, NCEZID.
In the case of chlamydia, a microbe specialized in a manner that was detrimental to humans. However, this is not always the case when specialization occurs. Bats are another great illustration of the potential evolution of specialized relationships. These ancient creatures have been around for a long time and also accumulated a vast array of viruses in their bodies. These viruses do not cause disease in the bats, but when the viruses are transmitted to other animals such as cattle and humans (zoonotic disease, see Figure 4), the viruses are fatal. The current thought is that bats were once susceptible to disease by the earlier forms of these viruses, but over time, the viruses specialized to such a high degree that they were no longer pathogenic. Rather, they began to form a commensal symbiotic relationship, or one in which the virus benefits by thriving in the bat, but the bat receives neither beneficial nor harmful effects from the viral growth. 
So, who should we fear? The answer is complicated, as both generalist and specialist microbes can be beneficial or harmful. Within our lifetime, it would be unrealistic to wait for harmful pathogens to evolve to work symbiotically with our bodies instead of against us. Instead, we can improve our understanding of how pathogens emerge and use that information to develop methods to lessen the emergence of dangerous novel pathogens. Even though microbes are very small in size, they can have an enormous impact on us and the environment.
 Listeria - FoodSafety.gov [cited 3/6/2016 2016]. Available from http://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/bacteriaviruses/listeria/ (accessed 3/6/2016).
 Listeria guidelines - 3. growth characteristics [cited 3/6/2016 2016]. Available from http://www.foodsafety.govt.nz/elibrary/industry/guidelines-management-fish-listeria/lsteria4.htm (accessed 3/6/2016).
 Engleberg, N. C., T. Dermody, and V. DiRita. 2013. Chlamydiae: Genital, ocular, and respiratory pathogens. In Schaechter’s mechanisms of microbial disease. 5th ed., 292. Baltimore, MD: LIppincott Williams & Wilkins.
 Smith, I., and L. F. Wang. 2013. Bats and their virome: An important source of emerging viruses capable of infecting humans Current Opinion in Virology 3 (1) (Feb): 84-91.
 Toft, C., and S. G. Andersson. 2010. Evolutionary microbial genomics: Insights into bacterial host adaptation Nature Reviews.Genetics 11 (7) (Jul): 465-75.
More From Thats Life [Science]
- Dying Tomatoes, Healthy Kittens, and the EMP500: Why you should care about the International Society for Microbial Ecology
- The Purebred Poodle Problem
- Let It Glow
- I’m Likin’ That Lichen
- Celebrate the Holidays with a Decorative Parasite
- Sleeping One Hemisphere at a Time
- Through the Mycologist's Hand Lens: Deceptive Decomposers
- Life Science in Outer Space!
- 5 Things You Didn’t Know About Rats
- Watermelon Snow
- Critter Candid Cam
- Three Cool Plants in Hot Places
- A parasite only a moth could love
- Telling tales of plants and their names
- The Colorful World of Primate Hair
- Where do fish go in winter?
- You Scratch My Back and I’ll Scratch Yours
- Alien Microbes: How studying hyperthermophiles can help us discover life on other planets
- Life, the universe, and everything: Dreams of being a biophysicist
- Bug Sleuth – One Entomologist’s Mission to ID a Mysterious Swarm of Wasps
- Horny and Hungry: The Dilemma of Sexual Cannibalism
- Who’s who? The elusive difference between butterflies and moths
- Tuberculosis - A Romantic Disease?
- Ode to a Few Arachnids
- Monotropa uniflora - This wildflower is pretty wild
- Eavesdropping in the Animal Kingdom: Sneaky Creatures Just Trying to Get Ahead
- Trypanosomes - A Weird Pathogen You Haven't Heard Of
- A Beautiful 9/11 Tribute, but a Fiasco for Migratory Birds
- Cats can have AIDS, too.
- Part 2: Does catching Pidgeys help you notice Pigeons? Interviews with Pokémon Go Researchers
- Biodiversity in my Backyard: Encounters with Pidgeys and Dratinis, Part 1
- Fins, Limbs, Rays, and Digits – A Beginner’s Guide to Terrestrial Living
- Fins, Limbs, Rays, and Digits – A Beginner's Guide to Terrestrial Living
- Five things that really stink about the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
- Tricks but no Treats - An Orchid’s Guide to Making a Fool of Your Pollinator
- Tracking the lost years - where do baby sea turtles grow?
- Posing as a Bird Mama: the adventures of a researcher-turned-bird-parent
- Hot moves and sexy sons · When Boys Become Men By Dancing
- The hungry caterpillar in real life
- Mantis Shrimp Vision - Seeing in Secret Code
- When It Comes to Bird Beaks - Size Matters
- Is your gut trying to kill your resolve? · Mind over microbe
- Recent talk of walls in the media has brought up a lot of emotions, but what do walls do in nature? · When a Wall is just a Wall
- Bees are more than buzzing insects around you · May the Bees Be With You: Maintaining the Sweet Balance in Life
- Neither a toad nor a worm · Nematodes: The super microscopic animal!
- Snap! Flash! Bang! Find out how ocean-dwelling pistol shrimp fire bubble ‘bullets’ to stun their unsuspecting prey. · How Pistol Shrimp Kill with Bubbles
- Who needs males after all?
- Ecology and Behavior of Woodchucks · Opposition Research on My Garden’s Greatest Nemesis
- Vision in Jumping Spiders · Watching Your Every Move
- Slimed and Consumed - The Blob is Real!
- The Evolution and Ecological Impacts of Cats · Lion in Sheep's Clothing
- What happens when frogs have to compete for acoustic space and a chance to be heard? · Struggling to be Heard - Competition in a Complex Soundscape
- Think Genghis Khan and Napoleon were the most successful invaders? Think again. · Invasive Species and Invasion: Part 1
- When, and how, terror birds invade
- 8 Reasons Plants Are Amazing
- Too Clean for Comfort · How our obsession with cleanliness might be hurting our health
- Stop, evaluate, and listen - serotonin surges when a female is present
- No Teeth, Long Tongue, No Problem - Adaptations for Ant-eating
- The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly - Predators, Parasitoids, and Parasites
- How our microbiome affects our health and vice versa · If you don't care for your microbiome, you might want to start
- Finding new ways to grow bacteria to progress science · Culturing the Least Cultured Members of Society
- Hit the Road Jack
- What Happened to Your Nose?
- Building better plants - Norman Borlaug and the Green Revolution
- Love Songs for Nobody - Birdsong in Winter
- We know we get infections from time to time. Why does this happen? · The Evolution of Virulence
- How cheese rinds may be a valuable tool for microbial discovery · The Unseen World – On Cheese?
- Find Me Where the Wild Things Are
- A commentary on how to make science more ‘clickable’ · You won’t believe this simple trick to tell if your coral is healthy or not
- Some species hide in plain sight, but scientists have ways to suss them out · Cryptic Species Hide in Plain Sight
- Minuscule Hitchhikers Pinch a Ride · Creature Feature - Pseudoscorpions
- World Fish Migration Day 2016!
- Walking With Giant Anteaters
- Why we should care about sea turtles · When A Sea Turtle Balanced Earth
- More ›